Measurement  of Vital Signs at home

Vital signs refer to measurements taken to analyze the condition of the human body. In conjunction with a patient’s clinical presentation, doctors use these vital signs to diagnose pathological conditions and determine appropriate treatment.

The Measurement of Vital Signs at home  includes the assessment of:

  • Blood pressure, both systolic and diastolic
  • Heart rate, or pulse rate
  • Body temperature
  • Respiratory rate
  • Blood sugar levels
  • Arterial oxygen saturation (oximetry)

What They Indicate and How to Properly Measure Vital Signs

Measurement of Vital Signs

Arterial pressure is defined as the force exerted by the blood on the walls of the arteries. Systolic pressure is greater than diastolic pressure and is measured at the moment of the heart’s maximum contraction, while diastolic pressure is the lowest pressure during heart relaxation. The measurements are typically recorded in millimeters of mercury (mmHg).

In non-acute situations, vital signs are measured with the patient in a resting state for about 10 minutes, free from emotional stress, alcohol or caffeine consumption, and without smoking. To measure blood pressure, a stethoscope and a sphygmomanometer (blood pressure monitor) are needed, though electronic blood pressure monitors have become more common in recent years as they don’t require a stethoscope.

The arterial pulse is the wave of force exerted on the walls of peripheral arteries during each contraction of the left heart ventricle. In adults, the pulse rate ranges from 60 to 80 beats per minute, while in children, it ranges from 90 to 110 beats per minute. Pulse measurement is crucial for assessing cardiac function and possible arrhythmias and for evaluating the overall condition of the body, such as potential bleeding.

Common sites for measuring arterial pulse include

  • the radial artery
  • brachial artery
  • and carotid artery.

Body temperature is now measured using digital thermometers after the discontinuation of mercury thermometers. The average normal body temperature for adults ranges from 35.5-37°C. Before and after each measurement, sterilize the thermometer and place it in the center of the armpit with the arm held down and firmly against the body.

Respiratory rate is determined by the number of breaths per minute. In adults, the respiratory rate typically ranges from 12 to 20 breaths per minute. During pathological conditions, such as fever, the respiratory rate may increase. The quality of breaths is defined by their depth and may be shallow or deep.

Blood sugar measurement is performed with a specialized blood glucose meter using a small blood sample to provide an accurate reading. Normal blood glucose levels range from 80-120mg/dl.

Arterial oxygen saturation is measured using a specialized oximeter, which is placed on a finger. Normal values are typically above 94%. In severe respiratory conditions requiring precise measurements, arterial blood samples are taken and analyzed with specialized equipment.

, Οικοιατρική

The specialized professionals at Oikoiatriki Home Doctors are experienced and equipped to accurately and safely provide Measurement of Vital Signs and record a patient’s vital signs in their home. We offer this service throughout Attica, 365 days a year. Our goal is to provide high-level medical and nursing services to all patients, characterized by professionalism and the best possible patient care.

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